Good Planting Practices for Truffle and Mushroom Cultivation
The method of planting, irrigation and maintenance are fundamental factors for the success of a truffle or a CHAMPIGNON ORCHARD®
Planting truffle plants
The young truffle plant must be installed in a certain volume of loose soil
Install the mound as it is, without breaking it, taking care to cover it with 2 to 3 cm of soil. The use of mulching avoids the tedious chore of weeding at the foot of the plants during the first two years and reduces the evaporation of the soil. There are various types, the most efficient are the biodegradable mulch slabs agglomerated cork (Robin HPK tiles), dimensions 70 cm in diameter. For all large-scale plantings, 80 micron plastic mulching can be used as a strip machine. This will simplify the interviews for the future. This mulching should be removed between 3 and 4 years after planting.
The installation of individual rodent protection nets is essential (see the conditions of our return guarantee on page 8).
To protect the young plants against the game, it is necessary to choose a protection with mesh climatic (or mesh windbreak). This in addition to the protection against game will play a role of shade during hot weather and windbreak in cold and windy periods that dry the plants.
- Against wild boars, at the moment, the most effective and least expensive protection remains the electric fence, moreover it is fast of installation.
- Water abundantly immediately after planting each plant to compact the soil around the clod (10 to 15 liters of water per plant and on our mulches).
We must find the right compromise between the precocity and longevity of production:
For black truffle (Tuber melanosporum)
The recommended spacings are 4m on the line and 6m between the lines, ie about 400 plants per hectare. It is necessary to orient the NORD ‡ SUD lines so that sunshine also reaches both sides of the hedge. square also very interesting must be within a distance of 5m by 5m between each plant (or 400 plants per hectare).
For Burgundy truffle (Tuber uncinatum)
Densities of 800 plants per 1000 plants / hectare (4x3m or 4x2.5m) are frequently adopted since the latter truffle is best grown in cool, shaded areas.
For the white summer truffle (Tuber aestivum)
Plant at a density of 400 to 500 plants / ha (5x5 to 5x4 m) as for Tuber melanosporum.
For the white winter truffle (Tuber magnatum)
The recommended planting distances are identical to those of Tuber melanosporum, ie 400 plants / ha (4x6m, or 5x5m).
The size for a sunshine correct and for a stimulation of the root system. On the one hand it consists in clearing the trunk on 50 to 70 cm maximum, to allow a good sunshine. Note that plantations that are not irrigated win not to be too pruned, at the bottom to keep a little cool, thanks to the shading.It is advisable to lighten the inner branches of the crown, when the one it becomes too dense, in order to limit the risks of diseases and parasites.It is also advisable to prune the branches laterally and vertically to limit the development of the crown in diameter and thus promote sunshine at the foot of the trees. This type of size is recommended only for Tuber melanosporum. And it should be done gradually in the 2nd or 3rd year after planting according to the growth of truffle plants. But size has another positive effect: the size of the aerial part causes a stimulation of root growth. This combined effect with tillage helps maintain and stimulate the mycorrhization of truffle trees.
It is essential during the first 2 years, to ensure the recovery of the plants, with a micro-sprinkler (never with a drip) or manually by bringing 10 liters of water / plant after planting and during periods of drought. 2nd and 5th year, the watering is only necessary in case of drought, and the frequency will be adapted to the climatic conditions as to the type of soil. From the 5th year, the irrigation will aim to satisfy the water needs of truffles. It must always be adapted to each type of soil and to rainfall. On average, it is advisable to water about every 3 weeks.
Poorly managed irrigation is more harmful than lack of irrigation.
Maintenance of the plantation
The ground work is necessary to obtain a quality plantation and an early production. It is essential to start working the soil at the foot of the trees from the first year of planting on 1 to 2m2, and 15 to 20 cm deep, in the case where no mulching has been done and from the 3rd or 4th year after removing the mulch.
The work on the ground entails: Favorable hydric conditions. A contribution of organic matter favoring an intense biological activity of the soil. Aeration of the soil.
On the other hand, tillage with a sharp tooth tool, also has a very important effect on the root system. By working the soil, we also realize a root size, and this size has the effect of stimulating the growth and development of the root system and thus maintain the development of mycorrhizae that develop mainly on juvenile roots.
The ideal is manual tillage using a hoe or pick. In the case of planting on a large surface, mechanical work will be done with a griffon, a vibrocultor or a harrow on a minimum of 15 to 20 cm depending on the depth of the soil.
It is advisable to work once a year, in the early spring of late March to early April.
Choice of HOST essence and TRUFFLE species
The results of the soil analysis, but also the geographical situation and the climatic conditions will guide the choice of the most suitable truffle species and our technicians will be able to advise you on the choice of the most appropriate host species for your needs. conditions, during a visit on your land.Il must always favor the naturally occurring species in the environment of the future plantation.
If you have any questions, do not hesitate to contact the sales manager of your sector.
Planting board for mushroom plants
Install the mound without breaking it, making sure to cover it with 2 to 3 cm of soil.
Mulching made with a 100% biodegradable slab made of agglomerated cork (ROBIN HPK slab) round 70 cm in diameter, will avoid weeding while keeping moisture at the foot of the seedlings during the first 2 or 3 years, determining for subsequent performance of the plantation.The protective sheath will protect the young plants from the game (60 cm sheath for protection against rabbits and height 120 cm against deer).
The plants are 3m x 3m (1100 plants per hectare) and up to 4m x 4m (625 plants per hectare).
Choice of HOST essence and mushroom species
We advise you to carry out an analysis of your soil before planting PLANT CHAMPIGNON®. From the results of this analysis and the description of the station conditions of your planting site, we can usefully advise you on the mushroom species. and the host tree best suited to your situation.
If you have any questions, do not hesitate to contact the sales manager of your sector .
The maintenance of the plantation
It is limited to a superficial work of the soil, in order to eliminate the competing vegetation. Note that the application of an individual mulching makes it possible to suppress the maintenance at the foot of the plants and thus limits the risks of injury of the plant on this occasion. A 70 cm diameter, 100% biodegradable, round cork straw bed is preferably used.